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Periodontics deals with diseases of the gums and the bone that holds the teeth.
Gum disease is the most frequent cause of tooth loss and there are two phases: gingivitis and periodontitis.


It embraces all the diseases that affect the soft tissues that protect the teeth, that is, the gums. Fortunately, if detected early, you can stop its evolution to periodontitis. The gums are a vulnerable part of the mouth.
It is not painful so it can be unnoticed. If gums are usually red or inflamed and bleeding during brushing, it can be a first symptom.

According to the cause that originates it is known as induced by dental plaque (it is a change that we find in the gingival tissue which is caused by microbial irritants). Other reasons for its appearance is in non-specific bacteria, it can also develop by infections with viruses (such as herpes, which is very common). Finally, genetics or certain fungi can lead to its appearance.


It is the disease that affects the bone that holds the teeth and other tissues, such as the periodontal ligament or the cement radicular.
When gingivitis is unnoticed or not treated properly, it degenerates into a periodontitis, which leads to the irreversible destruction of the tissues that support the tooth. To treat it, it is necessary to eliminate tartar with a specific cleaning (tartrectomy) and the patient will require periodic follow-ups. The body's immune system fights bacteria as the plaque spreads and grows below the gums. The toxins in the bacteria and the body's natural response to infection begin to destroy the bone and tissue that keep the teeth in place, so if the periodontitis is not treated properly over time the teeth become loose and the dentist will proceed to its extraction.

As in most diseases that affect our oral health, periodontal diseases are caused by bacteria that exist in our mouth and that are deposited on teeth and gums. The uncontrolled growth of these communities of bacteria can create problems and injuries in the tissues.


The scraping and root planning are the treatment of choice, performed by the periodontist when a patient has periodontal disease.
Scraping, which can be done manually or with the use of ultrasound instruments, removes tartar, plaque and bacterial film from the surface of the teeth and below the gum line. This is done to return the state of health to the teeth and supporting tissues, which surround the affected tooth.
Root planning involves careful scraping of the tooth root to reduce inflammation. In cases where gingival tissue is inflamed or sensitive, local anesthesia may be administered before cleaning to avoid discomfort. Dental scaling and root planning may require several visits.
The periodontist will teach you the correct use of dental floss and brushing to prevent the development of future bacteria and tartar.

How do I know if my gums are healthy?

The main and most frequent symptom of periodontal disease is redness of the gums and bleeding when brushing. Associated with these diseases are other symptoms such as bad smell or taste of the mouth, the sensitivity of the teeth to changes in temperature, the movement of some teeth and modification of the shape of the teeth.

It is important to treat this disease since we could have a progressive loss of all of our teeth. It is a gradual process that involves the loss of dental support tissues, increased sensitivity and chewing problems.

The loss of teeth or edentulism generates many problems: chewing, phonetics, aesthetic or psychological problems.

How can I prevent the disease in my gums?

Good oral hygiene and periodic dental check-ups are the best way to maintain healthy gums. We will help you improve your tooth brushing technique and we will give you recommendations constantly.

  • Brush teeth after each meal.
  • Dedicate at least 2 minutes to tooth brushing.
  • Use the correct brushing technique, that is, rotational movements, combined with sweeping movements.
  • Brush the tongue.
  • Use auxiliary cleaning means such as dental floss and mouth rinses.
  • Visit your dentist at the dental clinic, for a general review, every 6 months.

Is gingivitis caused only by bacteria?

Occasionally, the main cause of gingivitis is not bacterial plaque. It may be due to hormonal changes such as in the gingivitis of pregnancy or gingivitis of puberty or due to systemic diseases such as acute herpetic gingivoetomatitis or some dermatological diseases, among others. Therefore, whenever you notice signs of inflammation or bleeding of the gums, you should go to the gum specialist or periodontist, to diagnose if the cause is of bacterial origin and carry out the indicated treatment.

Gingivitis is not only caused by bacteria but can also be caused by problems of retracted gums caused by two main mechanical causes: Tooth brushing too strong: it hurts the gum causing it to retract, leaving part of the tooth root exposed causing gingivitis problems. Side effects of an orthodontic treatment performed incorrectly: there may be sudden movements that cause the teeth to come out of the bone and to be oriented outward causing gingivitis. It is usually unusual and the result of poorly performed orthodontics due to lack of treatment follow-up.

Can periodontitis affect my health?

Periodontitis is related to the following health problems:

  • It negatively affects the heart: Increases the propensity to suffer heart attacks as it increases the atheroma plaques. Periodontitis directly affects, therefore, serious cardiac complications.
  • Negative effects on diabetes: Periodontitis increases the peripheral resistance to insulin, which causes a greater decontrol in sugar levels. Periodontics and diabetes are cross-linked: people with gum disease are more likely to suffer from diabetes and diabetics are more likely to suffer from periodontal disease.
  • Greater complications about pregnancy: Pregnant women with periodontitis have a higher risk of having premature children as a result of the so-called "pregnancy gingivitis". We recommend that you do an oral cleaning or prophylaxis between the 3rd and 6th month of pregnancy. And do not miss revisions, especially if you notice that your gums start to bleed.